More than two-thirds of the global population will be living in cities by 2050. The rapid rate of urban growth has created enormous challenges. Global growth in the number of slum-dwellers, now more than 800 million people, attests to the need for stronger urban governance. So while cities concentrate opportunities, jobs, and services, they also concentrate health hazards and risks. Health is an important benchmark of sustainability of urban policies. Health indicators proposed here also reflect progress on social equity, environment , and development dimensions of sustainable cities.
:Core indicators include
Slum housing improvements that benefit health – as assessed by well-defined measures for safe, resilient, and climate-adapted structures that also have access to clean energy ;and basic utilities
Urban air quality in terms of particulate pollution – with respect to WHO air quality guidelines;
Healthy, efficient transport – in terms of safety and use of sustainable modes, including walking, cycling, and public transport;
Urban violence – in terms of intentional homicides.
Governance indicators assess how cities account for health in urban planning and building codes, and in monitoring of air/water quality and sanitation risks. Indicators of access to urban services essential to public health and sustainable cities also are suggested for: health care services, green spaces, fresh food markets, and waste management The full file of this article can be downloaded for free